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C# How to Program

C# How to Program


Visual C# 2012 How to Program Deitel and Deitel

حاج میثم مطیعی دانلود شب 19 ماه رمضان 96 ،  گلچین مداحی حاج میثم مطیعی برای شهادت حضرت علی (ع) ،  مداحی محمود کریمی برای شهادت حضرت علی و شب های قدر ،  حاج محمود کریمی - دانلود مداحی های ماه رمضان و شب های قدر 92 ،  دانلود آرشیو کامل مداحی حاج محمود کریمی در ماه رمضان و شب های قدر سال 93 ،  دانلود مداحی های حاج محمود کریمی در ماه رمضان و شب های قدر - مجموعه کامل صوتی ،  دانلود مداحی های حاج مهدی رسولی در ماه رمضان 1396 ،  دانلود مداحی شب 21 ماه رمضان حاج میثم مطیعی در سال 1393 ،  حاج میثم مطیعی دانلود مداحی شب قدر ،  دانلود مداحی حاج میثم مطیعی شب 23 ماه رمضان 94 ،  میثم مطیعی شب 21 رمضان سال 94 - روضه شهادت حضرت امیرالمؤمنین علی (ع) ،  حاج میثم مطیعی دانلود مداحی شب 21 ماه رمضان 95 ،  دانلود دعای جوشن کبیر با نوای حاج میثم مطیعی + متن دعا ،  در محفل گمنامی دلداده جانانیم، دلبسته دیرین میثاق شهیدانیم ،  حاج میثم مطیعی دانلود مداحی شب شهادت امام علی علیه السلام - مداحی ویژه شب قدر ،  دانلود شور کشتند مولا را همسر زهرا را با نوای میثم مطیعی ،  حاج میثم مطیعی روضه شهادت حضرت علی (ع) ،  حاج میثم مطیعی - روضه ضربت خوردن حضرت علی علیه السلام ،  دانلود آهنگ محمد علیزاده ماه عسل ۹۶ ،  دانلود تیتراژ ماه عسل 96 با صدای محمد علیزاده 

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[Note: This test-drive can be performed on a computer running either Windows 7 or Windows 8. The steps shown here are for Windows 7.We discuss running an app on Windows 8 in Section 1.15.]
You’ll now use Visual Studio Express 2012 for Windows Desktop to “test-drive” an existing app that enables you to draw on the screen using the mouse. The Painter app—which you’ll build in a later chapter—allows you to choose among several brush sizes and colors. The elements and functionality you see in this app are typical of what you’ll learn to program in this text. The following steps walk you through test-driving the app.


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C# programs are created using Microsoft’s Visual Studio—a collection of software tools called an Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The Visual Studio 2012 Express IDE enables you to write, run, test and debug C# programs quickly and conveniently. It also supports Microsoft’s Visual Basic, Visual C++ and F# programming languages. Most of this book’s examples were built using Visual Studio Express 2012 for Windows Desktop,
which runs on both Windows 7 and Windows 8. The Windows 8 UI and Windows 8 Graphics and Multimedia chapters require Visual Studio Express 2012 for Windows 8.

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Cloud computing allows you to use software and data stored in the “cloud”—i.e., accessed on remote computers (or servers) via the Internet and available on demand—rather than having it stored on your desktop, notebook computer or mobile device. Cloud computing gives you the flexibility to increase or decrease computing resources to meet your resource needs at any given time, making it more cost effective than purchasing expensive hardware to ensure that you have enough storage and processing power at their occasional peak levels. 
Using cloud computing services also saves money by shifting the burden of managing these apps to the service provider. New to this edition of the book, in Chapter 31 you’ll use Microsoft’s Windows Azure—a cloud computing platform that allows you to develop, manage and distribute your apps in the cloud. WithWindows Azure, your apps can store their data in the cloud so that the data is available at all times from any of your desktop computer and mobile devices. Verified DreamSpark students can download Visual Studio 2012 Professional which includes built-in support for Windows 8 and Windows Azure.9 You can sign up for a free 90-day trial of Windows Azure at www.windowsazure.com/en-us/pricing/free-trial/.

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1395/09/14

Windows Phone 8 for Smartphones

Author: ye doost   

Windows Phone 8 is a pared down version of Windows 8 designed for smartphones. These are resource-constrained devices—they have less memory and processor power than desktop computers, and limited battery life. Windows Phone 8 has the same core operating systems services as Windows 8, including a common file system, security, networking, media and Internet Explorer 10 (IE10) web browser technology. However, Windows Phone 8 has only the features necessary for smartphones, allowing them to run efficiently, minimizing the burden on the device’s resources.
New to this edition of the book, you’ll use Visual C# 2012 to develop your ownWindows Phone 8 apps. Just as the Objective-C programming language has increased in popularity due to iOS app development for iPhone, iPad and iPod touch, Visual C# 2012 is sure to become even more popular as the demand for Windows Phones increases. International Data Corporation (IDC) predicts that Windows Phone will have over 19% of the
smartphone market share by 2016, second only to Android and ahead of Apple’s iPhone.6 You’ll learn how to develop Windows Phone apps in Chapter 27.

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Microsoft’s Windows is the most widely used desktop operating system worldwide. Operating systems are software systems that make using computers more convenient for users, developers and system administrators. They provide services that allow each app to execute safely, efficiently and concurrently (i.e., in parallel) with other apps. Other popular desktop operating systems include Linux and Mac OS X. Popular mobile operating systems used in smartphones and tablets include Microsoft’s Windows Phone, Google’s Android, Apple’s iOS (for iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch devices) and BlackBerry OS. Figure 1.5 presents the evolution of the Windows operating system.

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1395/09/14

.NET Framework

Author: ye doost   

In 2000,Microsoft announced its .NET initiative (www.microsoft.com/net), a broad vision for using the Internet and the web in the development, engineering, distribution and use of software. Rather than forcing you to use a single programming language, .NET permits you to create apps in any .NET-compatible language (such as C#, Visual Basic, Visual C++ and many others). Part of the initiative includes Microsoft’s ASP.NET technology.
The .NET Framework executes apps and contains the .NET Framework Class Library, which provides many capabilities that you’ll use to build substantial C# apps quickly and easily. The .NET Framework Class Library has thousands of valuable prebuilt classes that have been tested and tuned to maximize performance. You’ll learn how to create your own classes, but you should re-use the .NET Framework classes whenever possible to speed up the software development process, while enhancing the quality and performance of the software you develop.

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1395/09/14

Object-Oriented Programming

Author: ye doost   

C#
In 2000,Microsoft announced the C# programming language. C# has roots in the C, C++ and Java programming languages. It has similar capabilities to Java and is appropriate for the most demanding app-development tasks, especially for building today’s large-scale enterprise apps, and web-based, mobile and “cloud”-based apps.

C# is object oriented—we’ve discussed the basics of object technology and will present a rich treatment of object-oriented programming throughout the book. C# has access to the powerful .NET Framework Class Library—a vast collection of prebuilt classes that enable you to develop apps quickly (Fig. 1.3). We’ll say more about .NET in Section 1.9.

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1395/09/14

Internet and WorldWideWeb

Author: ye doost   

In the late 1960s, ARPA—the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the United StatesDepartment of Defense—rolled out plans to network the main computer systems of approxi mately a dozen ARPA-funded universities and research institutions. The computers were to be connected with communications lines operating at a then-stunning 56 Kbps (1 Kbps is equal to 1,024 bits per second), at a time when most people (of the few who even had networking access) were connecting over telephone lines to computers at a rate of 110 bits per second. Academic research was about to take a giant leap forward. ARPA proceeded to implement what quickly became known as the ARPAnet, the precursor to today’s Internet.
Things worked out differently from the original plan. Although the ARPAnet enabled researchers to network their computers, its main benefit proved to be the capability for quick and easy communication via what came to be known as electronic mail (e-mail). 
This is true even on today’s Internet, with e-mail, instantmessaging, file transfer and social media such as Facebook and Twitter, enabling billions of people worldwide to communicate quickly and easily. The protocol (set of rules) for communicating over the ARPAnet became known as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). TCP ensured that messages, consisting of sequentially numbered pieces called packets, were properly routed from sender to receiver, arrived intact and were assembled in the correct order.

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1395/09/14

Object Technology

Author: ye doost   

C# is an object-oriented programming language. In this section we’ll introduce the basics of object technology. Building software quickly, correctly and economically remains an elusive goal at a time when demands for new and more powerful software are soaring. Objects, or more precisely the classes objects come from, are essentially reusable software components. There are date objects, time objects, audio objects, video objects, automobile objects, people objects, etc. Almost any noun can be reasonably represented as a software object in terms of attributes (e.g., name, color and size) and behaviors (e.g., calculating, moving and communicating).
Software developers have discovered that using a modular, object-oriented design and implementation approach can make software-evelopment groups much more productive than was possible with earlier techniques—object-oriented programs are often easier to understand, correct and modify.

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Programmers write instructions in various programming languages (such as C#), some directly understandable by computers and others requiring intermediate translation steps.

Machine Languages
Any computer can directly understand only its own machine language, defined by its hardware architecture. Machine languages generally consist of numbers, ultimately reduced to 1s and 0s. Such languages are cumbersome for humans, who prefer words like “add” and “subtract” to indicate the operations to be performed, so the machine language numeric versions of these instructions were referred to as code. The term “code” has become more broadly used and now refers to the program instructions in all levels of language.

Assembly Languages and Assemblers
Machine language was simply too slow and tedious to work with. Instead, programmers began using English-like abbreviations to represent elementary operations. These abbreviations form the basis of assembly languages. Translator programs called assemblers convert assembly-language code to machine code quickly. Although assembly-language code is clearer to humans, it’s incomprehensible to computers until translated to machine language code.
High-Level Languages, Compilers and Interpreters To speed the programming process even further, high-level languages were developed in
which single statements could be written to accomplish substantial tasks. High-level languages, such as C#, Visual Basic, C++, C, Objective-C and Java, allow you to write instructions that look almost like everyday English and contain commonly used mathematical expressions. Translator programs called compilers convert high-level language code into machine language code.
The process of compiling a large high-level language program into machine language can take a considerable amount of computer time. Interpreter programs were developed to execute high-level language programs directly (without the need for compilation), although more slowly than compiled programs.

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1395/09/14

Computer Organization

Author: ye doost   

Regardless of differences in physical appearance, computers can be envisioned as divided into various logical units or sections.

Input Unit
This “receiving” section obtains information (data and computer programs) from input devices and places it at the disposal of the other units for processing. Most information is entered into computers through keyboards, touch screens and mouse devices. Other forms of input include receiving voice commands, scanning images and barcodes, reading from secondary storage devices (such as hard drives, DVD drives, Blu-ray Disc™ drives and USB flash drives—also called “thumb drives” or “memory sticks”), receiving video from a webcam or smartphone and having your computer receive information from the Internet (such as when you download videos from YouTube or e-books from Amazon). Newer forms of input include position data from GPS devices, and motion and orientation information from accelerometers in smartphones or game controllers (such as Microsoft® Kinect ™, Nintendo’s Wii™ Remote and Sony’s PlayStation® Move).

Output Unit
This “shipping” section takes information that the computer has processed and places it on various output devices to make it available for use outside the computer. Most information that’s output from computers today is displayed on screens; printed on paper (“going green” discourages this); played as audio or video on PCs and media players (such as Apple® iPod®) and giant screens in sports stadiums; transmitted over the Internet or used to control other devices, such as robots, 3D printers and “intelligent” appliances.

Memory Unit
This rapid-access, relatively low-capacity “warehouse” section retains information that’s entered through the input unit, making it immediately available for processing when needed.
The memory unit also retains processed information until it can be placed on output devices by the output unit. Information in the memory unit is volatile—it’s typically lost when the computer’s power is turned off. The memory unit is often called either memory or primary memory—on desktop and notebook computers it commonly contains as much as 16 GB (GB stands for gigabytes; a gigabyte is approximately one billion bytes).

Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)
This “manufacturing” section performs calculations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. It also contains the decision mechanisms that allow the computer, for example, to compare two items from the memory unit to determine whether they’re equal. In today’s systems, the ALU is usually implemented as part of the next logical unit, the CPU.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)
This “administrative” section coordinates and supervises the operation of the other sections. The CPU tells the input unit when information should be read into the memory unit, tells the ALU when information from the memory unit should be used in calculations and tells the output unit when to send information from thememory unit to certain output devices. Many of today’s computers have multiple CPUs and, hence, can perform many operations simultaneously. A multi-core processor implements multiple processors on a single “microchip”—a dual-core processor has two CPUs and a quad-core processor has four CPUs. Many of today’s desktop computers have quad-core processors that can execute billions
of instructions per second. In this book you’ll learn how to write programs that can keep all these processors running in parallel to get your computing tasks done faster.

Secondary Storage Unit
This is the long-term, high-capacity “warehousing” section. Programs or data not actively being used by the other units normally are placed on secondary storage devices (such as your hard drive) until they’re again needed, possibly hours, days, months or even years later.
Information on secondary storage devices is persistent—it’s preserved even when the computer’s power is turned off. Secondary storage data takes much longer to access than information in primary memory, but the cost per unit of secondary storage is much less than that of primary memory. Examples of secondary storage devices include CD drives, DVD drives and flash drives, some of which can hold up to 768 GB. Typical hard drives on desktop and notebook computers can hold up to 2 TB (TB stands for terabytes; a terabyte is approximately one trillion bytes). New to this edition, you’ll see that storage in “the cloud” can be viewed as additional secondary storage accessible by your C# apps.

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1395/09/14

Data Hierarchy

Author: ye doost   

Data items processed by computers form a data hierarchy that becomes larger and more complex in structure as we progress from the simplest data items (called “bits”) to richer data items, such as characters, fields, and so on. Figure 1.1 illustrates a portion of the data hierarchy.

Bits
The smallest data item in a computer can assume the value 0 or the value 1. Such a data item is called a bit (short for “binary digit”—a digit that can assume either of two values).
It’s remarkable that the impressive functions performed by computers involve only the simplest manipulations of 0s and 1s—examining a bit’s value, setting a bit’s value and reversing a bit’s value (from 1 to 0 or from 0 to 1). We discuss binary numbers (and closely related octal and hexadecimal numbers) in more detail in Appendix D, Number Systems.

Characters
It’s tedious for people to work with data in the low-level form of bits. Instead, we prefer to work with decimal digits (0–9), letters (A–Z and a–z), and special symbols (e.g., $, @, %, &, *, (, ), –, +, ", :, ? and / ). Digits, letters and special symbols are known as characters. 
The computer’s character set is the set of all the characters used to write programs and represent data items on that device. Computers process only 1s and 0s, so every character is represented as a pattern of 1s and 0s. The Unicode character set contains characters for many of the world’s languages. C# supports several character sets, including 16-bit Unicode ® characters that are composed of two bytes—each byte is composed of eight bits. See Appendix B for more information on the ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) character set—the popular subset of Unicode that represents uppercase and lowercase letters in the English alphabet, digits and some common special characters.

Fields
Just as characters are composed of bits, fields are composed of characters or bytes. A field is a group of characters or bytes that conveys meaning. For example, a field consisting of uppercase and lowercase letters could be used to represent a person’s name, and a field consisting of decimal digits could represent a person’s age.

Records
Several related fields can be used to compose a record. In a payroll system, for example, the record for an employee might consist of the following fields (possible types for these fields are shown in parentheses):

• Employee identification number (a whole number)
• Name (a string of characters)
• Address (a string of characters)
• Hourly pay rate (a number with a decimal point)
• Year-to-date earnings (a number with a decimal point)
• Amount of taxes withheld (a number with a decimal point)

Thus, a record is a group of related fields. In the preceding example, all the fields belong to the same employee. A company might have many employees and a payroll record for each. 
Files A file is a group of related records. [Note: More generally, a file contains arbitrary data in arbitrary formats. In some operating systems, a file is viewed simply as a sequence of bytes—any organization of the bytes in a file, such as organizing the data into records, is a view created by the programmer.] It’s not unusual for an organization to have thousands or even millions of files, some containing billions or even trillions of characters of information. You’ll work with files in Chapter 17.

Database
A database is a collection of data that’s organized for easy access and manipulation. The most popular database model is the relational database in which data is stored in simple tables. A table includes records and fields. For example, a table of students might include first name, last name, major, year, student ID number and grade point average fields. The data for each student is a record, and the individual pieces of information in each record are the fields. You can search, sort and otherwise manipulate the data based on its relationship to multiple tables or databases. For example, a university might use data from the student database in combination with data from databases of courses, on-campus housing, meal plans, etc. We discuss databases in Chapter 22.

Big Data
The amount of data being produced worldwide is enormous and growing quickly. According to IBM, approximately 2.5 quintillion bytes (2.5 exabytes) of data are created daily and 90% of the world’s data was created in just the past two years!3 According to an IDC study, approximately 1.8 zettabytes (equal to 1.8 trillion gigabytes) of data was used worldwide in 2011.4 Figure 1.2 shows relationships between byte measurements.

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1395/09/14

Hardware and Moore’s Law

Author: ye doost   

A computer consists of various devices referred to as hardware, such as the keyboard,
screen, mouse, hard disks, memory, DVD drives and processing units. Every year or two, the capacities of computer hardware have approximately doubled inexpensively. This remarkable trend often is called Moore’s Law, named for the person who identified it, Gordon
Moore, co-founder of Intel—the leading manufacturer of the processors in today’s computers and embedded systems, such as smartphones, appliances, game controllers, cable set-top boxes and automobiles.
 
Moore’s Law and related observations apply especially to
 
• the amount of memory that computers have for running programs and processing data
• the amount of secondary storage (such as hard disk storage) they have to hold programs and data over longer periods of time
• their processor speeds—the speeds at which computers execute their programs (i.e.,do their work)

Similar growth has occurred in the communications field, in which costs have plummeted as enormous demand for communications bandwidth (i.e., information-carrying capacity) has attracted intense competition. We know of no other fields in which technology improves so quickly and costs fall so rapidly. Such phenomenal improvement is truly fostering the Information Revolution and creating significant career opportunities.
As a result of this continuing stream of technological advances, computers already can perform calculations and make logical decisions phenomenally faster than human beings can. Many of today’s personal computers can perform billions of calculations in one second—more than a human can perform in a lifetime. Supercomputers are already performing thousands of trillions (quadrillions) of instructions per second! The world’s fastest supercomputer—the Cray Titan—can perform over 17 quadrillion calculations per second—(17.59 petaflops)2—that’s more than 2 million calculations per second for every person on the planet! And—these “upper limits” are expanding quickly!

 

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1395/09/14

Introduction

Author: ye doost   

Welcome to Visual C# 2012 which, from this point forward, we’ll refer to simply as C#.1
C# is a powerful computer programming language that’s appropriate for building substantial
information systems.
You’re already familiar with the powerful tasks computers perform. Using this textbook,
you’ll write instructions commanding computers to perform those kinds of tasks
and you’ll prepare yourself to address new challenges.
Computers process data under the control of sequences of instructions called computer
programs. These programs guide the computer through actions specified by people
called computer programmers. The programs that run on a computer are referred to as
software. In this book, you’ll learn object-oriented programming—today’s key programming
methodology that’s enhancing programmer productivity, and reducing software
development costs. You’ll create many software objects that model both abstract and realworld
things. And you’ll build C# apps for a variety of environments including the
desktop—and new to this edition of the book—mobile devices like smartphones and tablets,
and even “the cloud.”

 

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